Several extensive batteries are available but most research relies on … Some measures assess both divergent and convergent thinking. In particular, both associative theory and Guilford's own SOI model support their use. They are best viewed as estimates of the potential for creative thinking. It is notable, however, that nearly all of these studies do not use traditional, individually administered intelligence tests. In Product Improvement, respondents were asked to improve a toy. It asks respondents to “think of a picture that no one else can think of”. (Merrifield, Guilford, Christensen & Frick, 1962). The first PG tasks required that students generate a number of problems about school, work, or involving friends. So where do you start? Again, these measures were administered to army officers. Asking requires generating as many questions as possible about a picture. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), Merrifield, Guilford, Christensen & Frick, 1962, Christensen, Merrifield, and Guilford (1953), Blair & Mumford, 2007; Licuanan, Dailey, & Mumford, 2007, Torrance & Safter, 1989; Torrance, Tan, & Allman, 1970, Cramond, Matthews-Morgan, Bandalos, & Zuo, 2005, Mumford, Marks, Connelly, Zaccaro, and Johnson (1998), Hocevar and Michael, 1979; Runco et al., 1987, Milgram, Milgram, Rosenbloom, & Rabkin, 1978; Sawyers, Moran, Fu, & Milgram, 1983, Michael and Wright, 1989; Zarnegar, Hocevar, & Michael, 1988, Implications of Domain Specificity for Creativity Theory*, Why You are Probably More Creative (and Less Creative) Than You Think, Baer, 1993, 1993/1994, 2009, 2011a, 2011b, Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, Write a number of different synonyms for each given word, List objects that belong to a specified class, List names of the objects in a given class, # of times in shifts from a subclass to another, List as many as five things that could be made by using both of two objects, Write six ways in which objects of a pair are alike. Divergent thinking has been used in studies of the fourth grade slump, for example, and in investigations of the relationship of creativity with suicide ideation. To change how we think, we have to think about how to change. Yet unlike DT tests, the RAT has correct responses for each task, hence it also involves some convergent and evaluative skills, in contrast to the other divergent thinking tests which rely more on ideational skills. As you complete the exercise, think about how you came up with the ideas and, more importantly, how you can apply that kind of divergent thinking and metacognition to other areas of your life. Examples of item response formats include drawing pictures using an incomplete figure, writing questions evoked by hypothetical situations, or listing possible uses for an object. He asked simple questions and then did mental exercises to solve problems. Tests of divergent thinking have been used with nearly all age groups. Cropley (1967) used a more qualitative scoring method, assigning higher scores to responses generated by statistically fewer individuals. Even though it has some common features with the Guilford’s battery, low correlations between the two batteries led to the conclusion that there is some departure. Some of them are considered general tests that can be administered to a broad segment of the population. Subscores and overall scores are then computed. For other tests, there is no single procedure. Mumford, J.D. It is much like Pattern Meanings except the stimuli are more abstract and not clear cut patterns. M.D. In a second study in 2000, Connelly, et al. The characteristics were fluency (the ability to rapidly produce a large number of ideas or solutions … In the meta-analysis, many of the studies were more than 30 years old and, therefore, were conducted using intelligence tests that do not reflect current theories of intelligence. : It’s a straight forward process that … The Divergent Thinking Test (DTT) is a creativity test. Divergent thinkers might come up with ideas that involve hundreds of paper clips, since the question never mentions how many you can use. Responses to these questions were scored on domain specific performance attributes and attributes relevant to leadership, such as long-term consequences, positive consequences, and negative consequences. Reliability studies of the uniqueness and number of total responses, based on the data from 151 fifth grade students, indicated that Spearman-Brown Split-Half coefficients were above .75, with the exception of .51 for the uniqueness score from the Instances test. An everyday object is presented to … A longitudinal study of gifted (top 1%) 13 year olds revealed that differences in SAT scores – even within such an elite group – predicted creative accomplishments 20 years later. Process execution was found to influence leader performance. Wallach and Kogan examined the performance in children. The test measures divergent thinking, as it is looking for the participant to generate lots of ideas. However, the true divergent thinkers--the ones who are good at thinking about thinking and have a corner on metacognition--can come up with 200 uses. These tests ask participants to produce multiple ideas in response to specific stimuli. The Similarities test asks respondents to find as many commonalities as possible between two verbally specified objects. They asked the experts to rate the responses for quality and originality which had inter-rater reliabilities of .90, and .84, respectively. Effects of explicit instructions to 'be creative' on the psychological meaning of divergent thinking test scores. Vincent et al. Think of as many problems as you can.”. Few studies have been conducted that include measures of creative personality, creative products, and creative processes (other than divergent thinking). Since the TTCT requires training to score the responses, inter-rater reliability was important. Barrett, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. Divergent Thinking Quizlet is the easiest way to study, practice and master what you’re learning. Otherwise a verbal bias might keep a creative individual from understanding the task well enough to perform at his or her true level of ability. They delved deeper into the intelligence–creativity relationship by specifically examining the relationship between Gf (novel problem solving) and Gc (acquired knowledge) and a measure of actual creative innovation. poorly formed/vague schemata Perhaps the most traditional method for appraising creative thinking is a person's performance on divergent thinking tests. Stimuli and responses are typically either pictorial or … Ideational fluency as a confounding factor in the measurement of originality. It also means that scoring DT tests is often time-consuming. RAT scores were also found to be negatively correlated with the first two-year GPAs of the undergraduates (r=−.27, p<.05). Another strength is the practicality of the tests. It was found that effective process execution was positively related (r = 0.40) to attained rank, critical incident performance, and awards received. There tends to be a high correlation between scores for fluency, originality, and flexibility. It's a process of understanding why we think, how we think, and what drives us. Thing you use to push that emergency restart button on your router 6. As noted above, when used as assessments, they are best viewed as estimates of the potential for creative thinking and problem solving. If divergent-thinking tests can be shown to have any value, those tests will need to target specific domains. (p. 109). Because fluency and flexibility are contagious and because of the development of creative theories, the recent consensus is that the evaluation of creativity must include originality (or novelty) and valuation (usefulness or appropriateness) (Mayer, 1999; Yeh et al., 2011). We go through our normal workday processing email and chatting on Slack. well-formed/specific schemata. In a break from the preceding work by Guilford, the DT tests are administered in a game-like environment. Overall scores have strong reliability although subscores frequently do not have sufficient reliability to warrant individual interpretation. Table 6.1. Pattern-meanings test was one of the visual/figural tests. Hold papers together 2. Early EEG results from pioneering studies by Colin Martindale distinguished alpha wave activity in relation to engagement in the Alternate Uses Test from activity in relation to engagement in the Remote Associates Test and intelligence tests. Intelligence, divergent thinking, and expertise, however, influenced effective process execution. Convergent Thinking. By the same token, case-based knowledge structures are highly complex including information bearing on goals, causes, outcomes, restrictions, and contingencies. Limiting the number of responses (Michael and Wright, 1989; Zarnegar, Hocevar, & Michael, 1988) has also been used to diminish the influence of fluency. Women might come up with a radically different list than men. Guilford’s test of Divergent Thinking – Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking is the ability to consciously generate new ideas that branch out to many possible solutions for a given problem. Interpretations of test results are quite easy, given the large literature on divergent thinking. Choose from 19 different sets of divergent thinking flashcards on Quizlet. Measured intelligence and creativity were significantly correlated for the high IQ group, but they were not significantly correlated for people with average IQs. Another method is to categorize every response as either original or popular. They are both opposite in meaning. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. Wallach and Kogan also reported correlations between those individual tests of divergent thinking and several tests of intelligence, including the WISC, which supported discriminant validity with only low coefficients. Although verbal DT was a better predictor of creative achievement than intelligence, figural DT was not a factor in the model. Mouchiroud and Lubart (2001) used medians to suppress the influence of fluency (because they are less sensitive to means). They are certainly not synonymous with, nor do they guarantee, actual creative performance. This is a close approximation to the Brick Uses or Alternate Uses tests in Guilford’s battery. Runco, in International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), 2010. Performance on these tests is usually statistically independent of performance on tests of convergent thinking. I was just curious to know if you were either a divergent or convergent thinker. The aim was to make DT tests more applied and related to the natural environment. The test asks for a variety of (divergent) solutions to a problem. Permissive testing environments minimize the impact of extrinsic constraint and allow intrinsic involvement by the students. More than 50 million students study for free with the Quizlet app each month. Divergent thinking is generating unique solutions and seeing various possibilities in response to questions and problems. The Verbal form of the TTCT has seven subtests: Asking, Guessing Causes, Guessing Consequences, Product Improvement, Unusual Uses, Unusual Questions, and Just Suppose. One of the few research studies to use an individually administered, modern IQ test used the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale and a creative invention task (in which people would use shapes to create a possible object, and then name and describe their invention). The implication is quite significant: If schools rely on tests of convergent thinking, which most do, they will not identify students with notable potential for original problem-solving and creative talent. Traditional scoring includes fluency, flexibility, and originality. The Alternate Uses Test is one of the most popular divergent thinking tasks. The fact that we’ve been living in the shadow of this YA classic thinking we know where we fit in without really knowing—well, let’s just say it through us for a loop. You may write down problems about the campus itself, classes, professors, policies, classmates, or whatever. reported an internal reliability of .70, and later studies (Blair & Mumford, 2007; Licuanan, Dailey, & Mumford, 2007) reported similar or higher reliabilities. The basis for this finding may lie in the fact that divergent thinking tasks require additional skills beyond divergent thinking that are linked to domain expertise, rather than in the notion that the process of divergent thinking itself is domain specific. You can clip letters together, use one to reset a smoke detector, and...that's about it. This test is used to measure … They are considered the gold standard of divergent thinking tests. They can be used in various settings (e.g., educational, clinical, and organizational) and can be used as exercises or assessments. Other studies indicated the differences in social attitudes and occupational interests between the high and low scorers on RAT. It is the ability to develop original and unique ideas and then come up with a problem solution or achieve an objective. Rarity was mostly calculated through the percentage of the responses (those given by less than 5 or 10 percent) within a population. They are characterized by open-ended questions, which allow an examinee to produce numerous ideas. That is a question for the alternative uses test of divergent thinking. The test is simple--just come up with as many practical uses for a paper clip. Much of this research is reviewed in other articles in this encyclopedia. Within test correlations were above around .70 and .50 for the Uses task (fluency and uniqueness, respectively); .75 and .60 for the Pattern-Meanings task; .72 and below .52 for the Similarities task; and .70s and .53 for the Line-Meanings task. Respondents are shown cards with drawings and asked “tell me all the things you think this could be”. One very popular divergent thinking test that was developed by Christensen, Merrifield, and Guilford (1953) is “Consequences”. Who knows? Selcuk Acar, Mark A. Runco, in Handbook of Organizational Creativity, 2012. Given the distinct characteristics of assessments in these areas, highlighted throughout this book, the threshold theory may be best viewed as largely untested. Bookmark The test me… These tests ask participants to produce multiple ideas in response to specific stimuli. One possibility: Use a normal office paper clip. This technique is a tool … Runco and Mraz (1994) suggested using total ideational pools to make scoring easier. Pattern meanings had reliability scores between .64 and 80 for the uniqueness and .69 and .85 for the number. Even preschool children can be tested, though not with paper-and-pencil measures. The complexity of case-based knowledge is noteworthy because it implies that the strategies employed in working through leadership problems may be different than those applied in other fields. How would you solve this problem? If it were possible to get a ‘true’ measure of the constructs, there might be a higher relationship. Test your understanding of divergent thinking using an interactive quiz and printable worksheet. Mednick summarized reliability and validity evidence that is available as he developed the RAT. The information and ideas obtained as a result of divergent thinking can be structured using convergent thinking to produce a single most effective answer. It turns out most people can only think of about 10-15 ideas. In fact, it has been proposed that the quality of a solution depends upon the quality of a problem. A number of studies have found that scores on different types of divergent thinking tasks, such as verbal, figural, or mathematical, do not show strong associations with each other, suggesting that domain specific skills influence test performance. Depending on which of the Torrance Tests a researcher happened to choose – and bear in mind that domain generality assumes it doesn’t matter which one is chosen because only a single set of skills is really assessed that is applicable across all domains – that researcher might get distinctly different results, as Woodward and Sikes (1915) found when comparing the creativity of musicians and nonmusicians and as Plucker (1999) showed in his revalidation study of the Torrance Tests: The results regarding figural and verbal DT are much more difficult to interpret. Finally, originality refers to the uniqueness of an idea; it reflects the ability to approach a problem in a novel way (Baas et al., 2008). Others looked at measures of fluid intelligence and creativity (as measured through divergent thinking tests) and found modest correlations across all levels of intellectual abilities. Runco, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. Convergent thinking is considered black and white, while divergent thinking has gray areas. R.J. Sternberg, J.C. Kaufman, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. They argued that compound problems are superior to previous tasks in terms of taking shorter time (less than 1 hr), and including simpler items which controls confounding variables, having clear solutions. Results of the test are measured across four sub-categories: There are newer forms of divergent thinking tests, and some have good application in adult and organizational populations. Sawyer (2012, p. 58) came to a similar conclusion: There may be some bit of real-world creativity that could be predicted by a hypothesized construct of general creativity, but that bit is much smaller than the domain-specific component. The test behind the Alternative Uses Task, sometimes called Guilford's Test of Divergent Thinking, is pretty simple. Divergent thinking, also referred to as lateral thinking, is the process of creating multiple, unique ideas or solutions related to a problem that you are trying to solve.Divergent thinking is similar to brainstorming in that it involves coming up with many different ideas to …
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